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IB DP Economics Study Notes

2.10.2 Moral Hazard

Moral hazard is a multifaceted concept in economics. While it is frequently used in the realms of insurance and financial sectors, its influence is wide-ranging, touching upon various aspects of economic decision-making and behavioural economics.


Moral hazard transpires when there's a divergence between the party who takes an action and the party who bears the risk associated with that action. In essence, it arises when an individual or entity is protected from certain risks, and hence, acts more recklessly than they would if they bore the risk entirely.

  • Risk-shifting: The foundational concept of moral hazard is risk transfer. One party behaves more riskily, knowing another party will incur the consequences.
  • Asymmetric Information: This phenomenon amplifies in situations where one party possesses superior information than the other, exploiting this knowledge gap.

Detailed Examples

1. Insurance:

  • Motor Vehicle Insurance: A driver with full coverage might become less diligent about locking their car or parking in secure areas, knowing their insurer will cover theft or damage costs. This can increase insurance claims, pushing up premiums for everyone.
A diagram illustrating moral hazard in car insurance

Image courtesy of economicsonline

  • Health Insurance: Patients with comprehensive health insurance may frequently visit doctors for minor ailments or opt for expensive treatments because they're not directly bearing the costs. This can escalate healthcare expenses overall.

2. Banking and Finance:

  • Government Guarantees: Some banks, deemed "too big to fail," might indulge in hazardous lending or investment practices, presuming government bailouts if things go awry.
A diagram illustrating moral hazard in banking and finance

Image courtesy of economicshelp

  • Executive Bonuses: High bonuses can encourage short-term risk-taking among executives. If their risky choices yield short-term profits, they gain large bonuses. If their choices lead to long-term company failures, they don't suffer the repercussions.

3. Employment Dynamics:

  • If workers believe there's a low chance of being laid off or face consequences for poor performance (perhaps due to strong union protection), they might exert less effort, impacting overall productivity and company profitability.

4. Property Rentals:

  • Tenants might not maintain rental properties well if they believe the landlord will cover all repair costs, leading to more wear and tear than if they owned the property.

Comprehensive Solutions

1. Co-Payments and Deductibles:

This strategy, primarily used in insurance, ensures the insured party bears a fraction of the costs, encouraging careful behaviour.

  • Benefits:
    • It establishes a cost-sharing mechanism.
    • Directly impacts claim frequency, ensuring individuals only claim when necessary.

2. Monitoring and Oversight:

Regular oversight can detect and deter reckless behaviour.

  • Banking Sector: Enhanced regulations, routine audits, and stricter lending requirements can prevent banks from granting excessively risky loans or making precarious investments.
  • Workplace: Regular performance reviews, transparent reporting mechanisms, and clear performance metrics can help in overseeing employee performance and reducing moral hazard.

3. Performance-Based Contracts:

Linking rewards or compensation to performance can align individual objectives with organisational goals.

  • Sales: Commission-based structures might motivate salespeople to increase sales volume and quality.
  • Executive Compensation: Tying a significant portion of executive pay to long-term company performance can dissuade short-term risky strategies.

4. Education and Awareness:

Knowledge empowers. Educating all parties about potential risks, repercussions, and the broader ramifications of their actions can discourage reckless behaviour.

  • Insurance: Running awareness campaigns about the consequences of fraud or inflating claims can reduce such instances.
  • Healthcare: Educating patients about unnecessary medical tests or treatments can lead to more informed choices.

5. Limiting Guarantees:

Clearly defining the extent of guarantees can prevent entities from taking undue risks.

  • Banks: Establishing a clear framework outlining the scenarios or criteria for bailouts can deter banks from reckless decisions.
  • Insurance: Capping the maximum claim amount or excluding certain types of claims can reduce moral hazard.

6. Transparency and Information Symmetry:

Creating platforms or mechanisms to share information, or making certain disclosures mandatory, can address the root cause of many moral hazard scenarios.

  • Financial Markets: Making it mandatory for investment firms to disclose certain risk parameters can guide investors better.
  • Healthcare: Transparently displaying treatment costs and success rates can help patients make informed decisions.

In summation, moral hazard is a nuanced topic in economics, interwoven with behavioural aspects, market dynamics, and information disparities. Recognising its potential manifestations and proactively addressing them can lead to more efficient market outcomes and fairer distribution of resources.


Moral hazard and adverse selection are both concepts related to asymmetric information but manifest differently. Moral hazard arises post-contract, after an agreement has been reached. It concerns the changes in behaviour of one party due to the protection or safety net offered by the agreement. For instance, an insured individual might take higher risks knowing they're covered. Adverse selection, on the other hand, is a pre-contract issue. It happens when one party has more information about its situation than the other, leading to potentially imbalanced or unfair agreements. An example is when an individual knowing they're ill buys a life insurance policy without disclosing their health condition.

Moral hazard can significantly influence consumer behaviour in healthcare. When patients have comprehensive health insurance, they might overuse medical services, thinking that their insurance will cover the costs. This can lead to increased healthcare costs overall, as people might request unnecessary tests or treatments, believing that there's no direct financial implication for them. It might also mean that resources are directed away from those who genuinely need them, leading to inefficiencies in the healthcare system. To mitigate this, insurance providers often introduce co-payments or deductibles, ensuring that consumers think twice before using medical services indiscriminately.

While moral hazard typically carries negative connotations due to its association with reckless behaviours, there are instances where it might have positive implications. For example, if a company believes that it has a safety net (like a potential government bailout), it might be more inclined to innovate, take calculated risks, and invest in research and development, potentially leading to advancements in its industry. Furthermore, in economic downturns, knowing that some institutions are 'too big to fail' and would be supported can provide stability to financial systems and prevent wider systemic collapses. However, it's crucial to balance these potential benefits with the risks and costs associated with moral hazard.

Yes, government regulations can sometimes unintentionally exacerbate moral hazard issues. For instance, if a government assures industries or firms that they will be rescued in the face of bankruptcy or other crises, it can encourage these entities to act recklessly, knowing that they have a safety net. Another example could be strict regulations on declaring bankruptcy. If businesses believe that the government will not allow them to fail, they might take on excessive debt or engage in high-risk ventures. While regulations aim to ensure stability and fairness, they need to be designed carefully to ensure they don't inadvertently promote riskier behaviours.

Moral hazard tends to be more prevalent in industries where the consequences of risk-taking are dispersed across a broad group, usually due to the presence of insurance or potential government bailouts. In such cases, individual entities might perceive that they can undertake excessive risks without facing the full brunt of the negative consequences. For instance, the financial sector, particularly banking, is susceptible to moral hazard because banks can sometimes expect government bailouts during crises. Similarly, the insurance industry faces moral hazard since policyholders, knowing they're insured, might take greater risks. Contrastingly, industries without such protective mechanisms usually have entities shouldering their own risks, making moral hazard less prominent.

Practice Questions

Explain the term "moral hazard" in the context of the banking sector and provide a real-world example of its occurrence.

Moral hazard, in the context of the banking sector, refers to the situation where banks take excessive risks, assuming they will be protected or bailed out by governments if their decisions lead to significant losses. This protection can encourage reckless behaviour since the banks believe they won't face the full consequences of their actions. A real-world example is the 2008 global financial crisis. Many banks, particularly in the U.S., indulged in risky lending practices and traded in complex derivatives. When these securities declined in value, the banks faced insolvency. However, governments worldwide intervened, using taxpayer funds to bail out these banks to prevent a systemic collapse, epitomising moral hazard in action.

How can moral hazard be reduced in the insurance industry? Provide a specific measure and explain its effectiveness.

Moral hazard in the insurance industry arises when policyholders engage in riskier behaviour because they believe their insurance provider will cover any related costs. To combat this, insurance companies often implement co-payments and deductibles. By ensuring the insured party bears a portion of the costs, this system encourages more careful behaviour. For instance, if an individual knows they must pay the first £500 of any claim, they might be more cautious in their actions, reducing frivolous claims. This measure not only directly impacts claim frequency, ensuring individuals only claim when genuinely necessary, but also aligns the interests of the insured and the insurer, fostering a mutual interest in risk reduction.

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Written by: Dave
Cambridge University - BA Hons Economics

Dave is a Cambridge Economics graduate with over 8 years of tutoring expertise in Economics & Business Studies. He crafts resources for A-Level, IB, & GCSE and excels at enhancing students' understanding & confidence in these subjects.

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