TutorChase logo
IB DP Economics Study Notes

2.11.4 Price Discrimination

Price discrimination delves into the strategic realm of pricing by firms. By exploring its definitions, types, and welfare implications, students can comprehend the complex interplay between producers' objectives and consumers' responses in different market settings. Understanding how price discrimination interacts with factors such as non-price determinants of supply and demand is crucial in grasping the full scope of economic analysis.


At its core, price discrimination is when a producer charges varying prices to different buyers for an identical product or service. It's essential to note that these price variations are not based on differences in production costs. This strategy demonstrates how firms can leverage market failures to their advantage, by differentiating prices among consumers to maximise revenue.

Types of Price Discrimination

First Degree Price Discrimination

  • Definition: Known as perfect price discrimination, this involves the seller charging each consumer the maximum price they are willing to pay for the product.
  • Mechanics: It typically requires the firm to have perfect information about each consumer's willingness to pay.
  • Examples: Auctions, where each consumer might end up paying a distinct price, or highly personalised sales scenarios, like art sales or real estate negotiations.
A graph of first degree price discrimination

A graph illustrating first degree price discrimination.

Image courtesy of ques10

Second Degree Price Discrimination

  • Definition: Prices are adjusted based on the quantity purchased or by different versions of a product.
  • Mechanics: Involves creating pricing schemes where consumers self-select into categories based on their preferences.
  • Examples: Quantity discounts (like "buy one get one free"), or tiered services in sectors such as software subscriptions or airline services (e.g., economy vs business class).
A graph of second degree price discrimination

A graph illustrating second degree price discrimination.

Image courtesy of titaniumtutors

Third Degree Price Discrimination

  • Definition: Charging different prices based on observable attributes of consumers.
  • Mechanics: Firms segment the market into discernible groups based on characteristics like age, income level, or geographic location and then set distinct prices for each.
  • Examples: Student discounts, senior citizen concessions, and regional pricing differences in cinema tickets or public transport fares.
A graph of third degree price discrimination

A graph illustrating third degree price discrimination.

Image courtesy of economicsonline

Welfare Implications

Consumer Surplus

Consumer surplus represents the benefit or utility that consumers receive when they can purchase a product for a price lower than the maximum they are willing to pay.

  • First Degree: Entire consumer surplus is captured by the producer since every buyer pays their maximum willing price.
  • Second Degree: Can lead to varied consumer surplus, contingent on how pricing tiers are designed. A bulk discount might increase surplus for bulk buyers but not for others.
  • Third Degree: Varies by group. For instance, a group receiving discounts (like students) might experience increased surplus, while others paying the standard price might see reduced surplus.

Producer Surplus

This is the difference between the amount a producer is paid and the minimum amount they are willing to accept to produce the good.

  • First Degree: The producer captures the whole area under the demand curve, ensuring maximum profits.
  • Second Degree: Surplus varies based on the pricing strategies chosen and how consumers respond.
  • Third Degree: Producers target segments with more inelastic demand to maximise their surplus.

Total Welfare

  • First Degree: Welfare is optimised since every unit valued above its cost is sold, but the benefit is transferred from consumers to the producer.
  • Second & Third Degree: The combined welfare of producers and consumers might not be maximised, leading to potential inefficiencies. It's pertinent to examine the role of externalities and welfare loss in understanding these inefficiencies.

Equity Concerns

  • Price discrimination can bring to the fore significant equity concerns. For example, one segment of consumers might end up subsidising another, which can lead to fairness issues.
  • Especially in third-degree price discrimination, non-discounted groups essentially pay for the reduced prices offered to discounted groups, illustrating the critical role of definitions of externalities in economic analysis.

Allocative Efficiency

  • First Degree: This type achieves allocative efficiency as the price equates to the marginal cost for every unit. It ensures resources are directed towards their most valued use.
  • Second & Third Degree: Allocative efficiency isn’t guaranteed. Some potential buyers might be excluded from the market due to higher prices, leading to a mismatch between resource allocation and consumer preferences.

Potential Benefits to Consumers

  • Market Accessibility: Allows consumers, who might have been priced out at a single market price, to access goods or services.
  • Product Variety: Second-degree discrimination might lead to more variety. For example, software services might offer varied feature sets at different price points.

Potential Drawbacks

  • Consumer Inequities: As mentioned, certain segments might end up unfairly subsidising others.
  • Exploitation: Particularly in markets where a significant power disparity exists between the producer and consumers, there's potential for consumer exploitation.
  • Complex Pricing: Especially in second-degree discrimination, complex pricing tiers can be confusing for consumers, possibly leading them to make suboptimal choices.

Challenges in Implementing Price Discrimination

  • Information Requirement: Firms need detailed data on consumers' willingness to pay, which isn't always available.
  • Market Segmentation: Effectively segmenting the market can be complex, especially in today's globalised world.
  • Arbitrage Risks: In third-degree price discrimination, there's a risk of reselling. For instance, if a product is cheaper in one country, individuals might buy and resell it in another, eroding the producer's profits.

By comprehending the diverse facets of price discrimination, students can gain a profound understanding of the myriad pricing strategies employed by firms and the subsequent implications for consumer welfare and market efficiency.


Price discrimination, in some cases, can be viewed as anti-competitive, especially if it leads to predatory pricing or if it's used as a strategy to drive competitors out of the market. For example, if a dominant firm offers products at a lower price in a specific region (where it's trying to eliminate competition) while charging more in another region (where it already has a monopoly), this can be seen as an anti-competitive strategy. However, price discrimination, in many cases, is a result of different cost structures or attempts to tap into varied consumer segments and isn't inherently anti-competitive. It's the context and intent behind the strategy that determines its classification.

In the age of digital technology, firms have a plethora of tools and methods to gather information for first-degree price discrimination. They often use data analytics and customer profiling to understand individual purchasing behaviours and preferences. By tracking online shopping habits, utilising loyalty card data, or even examining social media activity, companies can create detailed consumer profiles. These profiles provide insights into what a specific customer might be willing to pay for a product. Additionally, dynamic pricing algorithms, especially in industries like airlines or e-commerce, adjust prices in real-time based on demand, availability, and the user's browsing history.

Technology plays a pivotal role in modern price discrimination strategies. Advanced algorithms can analyse vast amounts of data to predict consumer behaviour, allowing companies to adjust prices dynamically. Online retailers might change prices based on users' browsing history, purchase history, location, device type, and even the time of day. Moreover, personalised advertising, often facilitated by cookies and other tracking mechanisms, can offer individualised deals or promotions to specific users. Mobile apps with location services can facilitate geo-based pricing, offering discounts or premiums based on a user's location. Thus, technology enables firms to price discriminate with a level of precision and efficiency that was previously unattainable.

Second-degree price discrimination, where prices vary based on the quantity or version of a product bought, can have mixed effects on a company's brand image. On the one hand, offering bulk discounts or premium versions can be seen as rewarding loyal or high-end customers, which can enhance brand perception. On the other hand, if regular or low-volume consumers feel that they're getting a worse deal or inferior product, they might perceive the brand as exploitative or elitist. This could lead to dissatisfaction and a potential decline in brand loyalty among this group, especially if they feel the pricing strategy is unfair.

Engaging in third-degree price discrimination allows firms to capture more consumer surplus and potentially increase their profits, even after accounting for any administrative costs involved in segmenting the market. By distinguishing different consumer groups, firms can set different prices based on varying elasticities of demand in these segments. For example, if a certain group is more price-sensitive (elastic demand), a lower price can be charged, while a higher price might be set for a segment with inelastic demand. Over time, by maximising profits in each segment, the overall revenue could outweigh the initial and ongoing costs of market segmentation.

Practice Questions

Define price discrimination and explain one of its types, providing an example.

Price discrimination refers to the practice of a producer charging different prices to different consumers for the same product or service, where these price differences are not attributed to variations in production costs. One type of price discrimination is the "third-degree" variation, where the seller segments the market based on observable attributes of consumers, such as age or location. An example of third-degree price discrimination is when cinemas offer reduced ticket prices for students or senior citizens, charging them differently from the general public based on their age.

How does first-degree price discrimination affect consumer surplus, and what are its welfare implications?

First-degree price discrimination, also known as perfect price discrimination, involves the seller charging each consumer the maximum they're willing to pay. As a result, the entire consumer surplus is captured by the producer, leaving consumers with no surplus. In terms of welfare implications, this method ensures that every unit of a product that is valued above its cost is sold. Thus, while it maximises producer surplus by capturing the entire area under the demand curve, it transfers consumer benefit to the producer. From a welfare perspective, it optimises total welfare but redistributes the benefit from consumers to the producer.

Dave avatar
Written by: Dave
Cambridge University - BA Hons Economics

Dave is a Cambridge Economics graduate with over 8 years of tutoring expertise in Economics & Business Studies. He crafts resources for A-Level, IB, & GCSE and excels at enhancing students' understanding & confidence in these subjects.

Hire a tutor

Please fill out the form and we'll find a tutor for you.

1/2 About yourself
Still have questions?
Let's get in touch.