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1.2 Nucleic Acids

Question 1

During DNA replication, what ensures the correct alignment of the incoming nucleotides against the template strand?

A. Hydrogen bond stability between A and T, G and C
B. The anti-parallel structure of the double helix
C. The activity of DNA polymerase
D. The presence of the primer

Question 2

Which of the following statements about RNA is correct?

A. RNA molecules are double-stranded and contain the base thymine
B. RNA molecules are single-stranded and contain the base uracil
C. RNA molecules are double-stranded and contain the base uracil
D. RNA molecules are single-stranded and contain the base thymine

Question 3

What is the significance of the 5' and 3' ends in DNA replication?

A. They determine the direction of transcription
B. They regulate the process of translation
C. They determine the direction of replication
D. They are responsible for the stability of the DNA molecule

Question 4

Which component is not a part of a nucleotide?

A. Phosphate group
B. Pentose sugar
C. Nitrogenous base
D. Ribose sugar

Question 5

During DNA replication, what role does complementary base pairing play?

A. It ensures the genetic diversity of the replicated DNA
B. It stabilises the double helix structure of DNA
C. It ensures the accuracy of the DNA copy
D. It accelerates the process of replication

Question 6

a) Explain the structural differences between a nucleotide in DNA and RNA. [3]

b) Discuss the significance of complementary base pairing in the process of DNA replication. [2]

Question 7

a) Describe the role of hydrogen bonds in the stability of the DNA double helix. [2]

b) Explain why DNA, not RNA, is the primary genetic material in most organisms, with certain exceptions. [3]

Question 8

a) Outline the structure of a nucleosome and its role in DNA packaging. [3]

b) Discuss the evidence that supports DNA as the genetic material. [2]

Question 9

a) Describe the process of purine-to-pyrimidine bonding in DNA. [2]

b) Explain the concept of the "directionality" of DNA and RNA strands. [3]

c) Discuss the implications of the conservation of the genetic code across different forms of life. [4]

Question 10

a) Outline the structure and function of RNA in contrast to DNA. [3]

b) Evaluate the Miller–Urey experiment's significance in understanding the origins of organic molecules. [3]

c) Explain why RNA is thought to be the first genetic material, preceding DNA. [3]

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