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IB DP Biology Questions

11.3 The Kidney and Osmoregulation

Question 1

What is the primary difference between osmoregulators and osmoconformers?

A. Osmoregulators expel nitrogenous waste, while osmoconformers do not.

B. Osmoregulators maintain a constant internal osmolarity, while osmoconformers match their internal osmolarity to their environment.

C. Osmoconformers have a loop of Henle, while osmoregulators do not.

D. Osmoconformers actively reabsorb water in the collecting duct, while osmoregulators do not.

Question 2

How does the Malpighian tubule system in insects primarily function in osmoregulation?

A. By facilitating ultrafiltration

B. By selectively reabsorbing useful substances

C. By removing nitrogenous waste and regulating ion balance

D. By maintaining hypertonic conditions in the medulla

Question 3

Which of the following accurately describes a difference in blood composition between the renal artery and vein?

A. The renal artery contains more glucose than the renal vein.

B. The renal vein contains more urea than the renal artery.

C. The renal artery contains more oxygen than the renal vein.

D. The renal vein contains more red blood cells than the renal artery.

Question 4

What is the primary role of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule in the kidney?

A. Selective reabsorption

B. Ultrafiltration

C. Concentration of urine

D. Secretion of ADH

Question 5

How does the proximal convoluted tubule contribute to osmoregulation?

A. By secreting ADH

B. By performing ultrafiltration

C. By selectively reabsorbing useful substances

D. By maintaining hypertonic conditions in the medulla

Question 6

a) Discuss the difference between osmoregulators and osmoconformers and explain how they maintain osmotic balance. [4]

b) Describe the role of the Malpighian tubule system in insects in osmoregulation and nitrogenous waste removal. [3]

Question 7

a) Discuss the difference in blood composition between the renal artery and vein in the human kidney. [3]

b) Describe the ultrastructure of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule and explain their role in ultrafiltration. [4]

Question 8

a) Discuss the role of the proximal convoluted tubule in the selective reabsorption of useful substances. [3]

b) Explain how the loop of Henle maintains hypertonic conditions in the medulla of the kidney. [4]

Question 9

a) Explain the role of ADH in the reabsorption of water in the collecting duct. [3]

b) Discuss the correlation between the length of the loop of Henle and the need for water conservation in animals. [4]

c) How does the type of nitrogenous waste in animals correlate with their evolutionary history and habitat? [3]

Question 10

a) Describe the function and significance of the Malpighian tubule system in insects. [3]

b) Explain the process and importance of ultrafiltration in the Bowman's capsule. [4]

c) How does the proximal convoluted tubule contribute to maintaining the body’s internal environment? [3]

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