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IB DP Biology Questions

5.4 Human Evolution

Question 1

Which major development is associated with the evolution of early hominins?

A. Development of flight

B. Bipedalism

C. Aquatic adaptations

D. Exoskeleton formation

Question 2

Which hominin species is known for significant increases in brain size compared to its predecessors?

A. Australopithecus afarensis

B. Homo erectus

C. Homo habilis

D. Ardipithecus ramidus

Question 3

How do human activities primarily impact biodiversity?

A. Increasing genetic diversity

B. Habitat destruction and pollution

C. Promoting species migration

D. Decreasing global temperatures

Question 4

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Australopithecus?

A. Large brain size

B. Bipedalism

C. Use of simple tools

D. Adaptation to a variety of habitats

Question 5

What is the primary consequence of overfishing on ecosystem health?

A. Increased plant diversity

B. Disruption of food chains and loss of species

C. Increased water clarity

D. Enhanced soil fertility

Question 6

a) Discuss the significance of bipedalism in the evolution of hominins and how it contributed to the development of early human ancestors. [4]

b) Compare the major characteristics of Australopithecus and Homo erectus, focusing on brain size, tool use, and other significant features. [4]

Question 7

a) Explain the development of language in hominins and its impact on their evolution and survival. [3]

b) Discuss how human activities, such as overfishing and pollution, impact biodiversity and ecosystem health. [4]

Question 8

a) Outline the process of speciation in hominins, highlighting the role of genetic isolation and divergence. [4]

b) Discuss the introduction of invasive species by human activities and its consequences on native ecosystems. [3]

Question 9

a) Describe the concept of a phylogenetic tree and explain how it visualises evolutionary relationships and common ancestry. [3]

b) Discuss the importance of cladistics in organising organisms based on evolutionary relationships. [3]

c) Provide an example to illustrate how cladograms are created and interpreted. [3]

Question 10

a) Explain the role of genetic isolation in the speciation process. [3]

b) Discuss the different modes of speciation, focusing on allopatric and sympatric speciation. [4]

c) How do physical and ecological barriers contribute to reproductive isolation and speciation? Give examples. [4]

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