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IB DP Biology Questions

5.1 Theory of Evolution

Question 1

Which of the following observations made by Darwin on the Galapagos Islands was crucial for developing his theory of evolution?

A. Similarity in climate across the islands

B. Variation in beak shapes of finches on different islands

C. Presence of the same species on every island

D. Absence of mammals on the islands

Question 2

What is the primary mechanism that Darwin proposed for evolution?

A. Genetic drift

B. Mutation

C. Natural selection

D. Gene flow

Question 3

Which of the following is NOT a key component of natural selection?

A. Genetic variation

B. Overproduction of offspring

C. Random mating

D. Survival of the fittest

Question 4

The peppered moth is an example of:

A. Disruptive selection

B. Directional selection

C. Stabilizing selection

D. Sexual selection

Question 5

Which evidence for evolution involves comparing the early developmental stages of different organisms?

A. Fossil records

B. Biogeography

C. Comparative anatomy

D. Embryology

Question 6

a) Outline the key observations made by Charles Darwin on his voyage on the Beagle that contributed to the development of the theory of evolution. [4]

b) Explain how the study of finches on the Galapagos Islands supported Darwin’s concept of descent with modification. [3]

Question 7

a) Define natural selection and discuss the role of genetic variation in this process. [3]

b) Using the example of the peppered moth, illustrate how natural selection can lead to evolutionary change. [4]

Question 8

a) Describe how fossil records provide evidence supporting the theory of evolution, demonstrating gradual change over geologic time. [4]

b) Explain how biogeography contributes to our understanding of evolution, with reference to unique species distribution. [3]

Question 9

a) Discuss the significance of homologous structures in different species in supporting the theory of evolution. [3]

b) Explain what vestigial structures are and provide an example. [2]

c) How does the study of embryology reveal evidence of common ancestry among different species? [4]

Question 10

a) Define and differentiate between allopatric and sympatric speciation. [4]

b) Provide an example of a physical barrier that could lead to allopatric speciation. [2]

c) Explain how polyploidy can result in sympatric speciation. [3]

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