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IB DP Biology Questions

1.2 Ultrastructure of Cells

Question 1

Which of the following structures is characteristic of bacteria but not archaea?

A. Nucleoid

B. Plasmids

C. Peptidoglycan cell wall

D. Ribosomes

Question 2

Which organelle is responsible for producing ATP through cellular respiration?

A. Nucleus

B. Mitochondria

C. Endoplasmic Reticulum

D. Golgi Apparatus

Question 3

What is the primary function of lysosomes within a cell?

A. Protein synthesis

B. Intracellular digestion

C. Lipid transport

D. DNA replication

Question 4

Which of the following is a key difference between Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)?

A. Sample preparation

B. Principle of operation

C. Image interpretation

D. Magnification level

Question 5

Which organelle is involved in the synthesis of lipids and detoxification of drugs?

A. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

B. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

C. Peroxisome

D. Nucleus

Question 6

a) Explain the principle of operation of a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and how it differs from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). [4]

b) Discuss the steps involved in sample preparation for viewing under a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). [3]

Question 7

a) Describe the structure and function of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. [3]

b) Explain how the structure of the Golgi apparatus is related to its function. [2]

Question 8

a) Highlight the main features of a nucleoid in prokaryotic cells and discuss how it differs from a nucleus in eukaryotic cells. [3]

b) Differentiate between the cell wall composition of bacteria and archaea. [2]

Question 9

a) Discuss the role and significance of ribosomes in protein synthesis within the cell. [3]

b) Explain how the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is adapted to its functions. [4]

c) Compare the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes in the cell. [3]

Question 10

a) Describe the ultrastructure of mitochondria and relate it to its role in energy production. [4]

b) Explain the significance of plasmids in bacterial cells. [2]

c) Discuss how archaea are adapted to extreme environments with reference to their cell wall composition. [4]

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