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IB DP Biology Questions

4.1 Introduction to Ecology

Question 1

Which of the following best describes the primary focus of ecology?

A. Study of individual organisms and their genetics

B. Study of interactions among organisms and their environment

C. Study of cellular structures and functions

D. Study of human-induced environmental changes

Question 2

Which level of biological organization primarily involves interactions between different species in a specific area?

A. Population

B. Ecosystem

C. Community

D. Biosphere

Question 3

What is the significance of reproductive isolation in speciation?

A. It prevents gene flow between populations

B. It increases genetic diversity within a population

C. It promotes interbreeding between different species

D. It reduces the adaptation of species to their environment

Question 4

Which organisms primarily rely on autotrophic nutrition?

A. Fungi

B. Plants

C. Animals

D. Bacteria

Question 5

What role do detritivores play in an ecosystem?

A. Synthesizing organic compounds

B. Consuming living plant material

C. Breaking down dead organic matter

D. Predating on other animals

Question 6

a) Define ecology and explain its importance in understanding the natural world. [3]

b) Discuss the different levels of biological organization from individuals to the biosphere, and explain how each level contributes to ecological interactions. [4]

Question 7

a) Explain what species are and discuss the factors contributing to reproductive isolation. [3]

b) Discuss the importance of reproductive isolation in speciation. [2]

Question 8

a) Differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition, and provide examples of species with both nutritional methods. [4]

b) Discuss the role of detritivores in obtaining nutrients from detritus and the importance of nutrient availability in ecosystems. [3]

Question 9

a) Explain the concept of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its role in amplifying DNA. [3]

b) Discuss the applications of PCR in medical diagnostics and forensic science. [3]

c) How does PCR contribute to advancements in paleobiology? [2]

Question 10

a) Describe the principle and procedure of gel electrophoresis. [3]

b) How does gel electrophoresis separate DNA fragments by size? [2]

c) Discuss the applications of gel electrophoresis in DNA profiling and paternity testing. [3]

Question 11

Which of the following is a source of inorganic nutrients for autotrophs?

A. Decomposing animals

B. Atmospheric carbon dioxide

C. Consuming other organisms

D. Digesting organic matter externally

Question 12

Why is nutrient availability crucial in ecosystems?

A. It determines the rate of decomposition

B. It influences the distribution and abundance of organisms

C. It promotes reproductive isolation

D. It reduces the energy flow within ecosystems

Question 13

Which organisms are capable of both autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition?

A. Mammals

B. Amphibians

C. Some algae

D. Birds

Question 14

What is the primary difference between saprotrophs and detritivores?

A. Saprotrophs consume living organisms, while detritivores consume dead organic matter

B. Saprotrophs externally digest organic matter, while detritivores internally digest it

C. Saprotrophs are autotrophs, while detritivores are heterotrophs

D. Saprotrophs are producers, while detritivores are consumers

Question 15

Which of the following best describes a species?

A. A group of individuals with similar appearance

B. A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring

C. A population living in the same geographic area

D. A community of different organisms interacting in a specific environment

Question 16

a) Discuss the process of genetic engineering and the creation of recombinant DNA. [3]

b) Explain the use of plasmids as vectors in genetic engineering. [3]

c) Provide examples of the applications of genetic engineering in medicine and agriculture. [2]

Question 17

a) Define and discuss the importance of ecology and the central questions addressed in this field. [3]

b) Explain the concept of autotrophic nutrition and its significance in ecosystems. [3]

c) Discuss the reliance of autotrophs on inorganic nutrients and the sources of these nutrients. [2]

Question 18

a) Define ecology and discuss its importance in understanding environmental interactions. [3]

b) Describe the different levels of biological organization from individuals to the biosphere. [4]

c) Explain the concept of reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation. [3]

d) Discuss the role of detritivores in obtaining nutrients from detritus. [2]

Question 19

a) Explain the process and significance of autotrophic nutrition in ecosystems. [3]

b) Discuss how species with both autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition methods contribute to ecological balance. [3]

c) Describe the principle and applications of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in various fields. [4]

d) How does gel electrophoresis contribute to DNA profiling and paternity testing? [2]

Question 20

a) Discuss the concept and significance of heterotrophic nutrition in ecological interactions. [3]

b) Explain the role of saprotrophs in external digestion of organic nutrients. [3]

c) Describe the process of creating recombinant DNA and its applications in genetic engineering. [4]

d) Discuss the importance of nutrient availability for autotrophs in ecosystems. [2]

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