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IB DP Biology Questions

7.4 Translation

Question 1

What is the primary function of tRNA during translation?

A. Carrying the genetic code

B. Forming the structural component of ribosomes

C. Carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome

D. Unwinding the mRNA strand

Question 2

Which part of the tRNA molecule binds to the mRNA codon?

A. Acceptor stem

B. Anticodon loop

C. D loop

D. TψC loop

Question 3

During which stage of translation does the ribosome assemble at the start codon of the mRNA?

A. Initiation

B. Elongation

C. Termination

D. Translocation

Question 4

What is the sequence of the start codon in mRNA that signals the beginning of translation?

A. UAA

B. UAG

C. AUG

D. UGA

Question 5

Which component of the translation machinery reads the sequence of bases in mRNA to determine the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide?

A. Ribosome

B. tRNA

C. rRNA

D. Translation factors

Question 6

a) Define translation and explain how the sequence of bases in mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. [4]

b) Discuss the structure of tRNA, focusing on the anticodon loop and the acceptor stem, and explain their functions. [4]

Question 7

a) Describe the role of ribosomes in translation and how they facilitate the interaction between mRNA and tRNA. [3]

b) Detail the process of initiation in translation, including the roles of various translation factors. [4]

Question 8

a) Explain the elongation phase of translation, describing how amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain. [4]

b) Discuss the termination of translation, highlighting how the process concludes and the roles of release factors. [3]

Question 9

a) Explain the significance of the start and stop codons in the translation process. [3]

b) Discuss the role of RNA polymerase in transcription and how it relates to translation. [4]

c) Describe how the accuracy of translation is maintained, ensuring that the correct amino acids are incorporated into the polypeptide chain. [3]

Question 10

a) Discuss the differences between transcription and translation, focusing on their locations and outcomes. [3]

b) Describe the structure and function of the ribosome during translation. [4]

c) Explain how translation is regulated and why this regulation is essential for cellular function. [3]

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