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IB DP Biology Questions

6.3 Defense Against Infectious Diseases

Question 1

Which of the following pathogens is responsible for causing malaria?

A. Bacteria

B. Virus

C. Fungi

D. Parasite

Question 2

What is the primary role of phagocytic white blood cells in the immune response?

A. Produce antibodies

B. Ingest and destroy pathogens

C. Produce memory cells

D. Release histamines

Question 3

Which component of the immune system is responsible for providing long-term immunity by remembering past infections?

A. Antibodies

B. Memory cells

C. Phagocytes

D. Complement proteins

Question 4

What is the main purpose of vaccination?

A. To treat infections

B. To induce an immune response and create memory cells

C. To reduce inflammation

D. To destroy pathogens directly

Question 5

Which of the following is a major concern associated with the overuse of antibiotics?

A. Reduced immune response

B. Antibiotic resistance

C. Decreased blood clotting

D. Impaired memory cell function

Question 6

a) Describe the different types of pathogens and give an example of a disease caused by each. [4]

b) Explain the role of phagocytic white blood cells in providing non-specific immunity. [3]

Question 7

a) Discuss the principles behind vaccination and how it contributes to adaptive immunity. [4]

b) Explain the issue of antibiotic resistance and its implications for treating bacterial infections. [3]

Question 8

a) Outline the roles of the skin and mucous membranes as the body's first line of defence against pathogens. [3]

b) Discuss the importance of blood clotting in preventing pathogen entry and aiding the immune response. [4]

Question 9

a) Explain how the human body distinguishes between self and non-self cells. [3]

b) Discuss the role of different leukocytes in the immune response. [4]

c) How do memory cells contribute to immunity? [2]

Question 10

a) Describe the structure and function of the sinoatrial node in the heart. [3]

b) How does the propagation of electrical signals through the heart coordinate heart contractions? [4]

c) Discuss the importance of valves in the heart and veins in maintaining blood flow and preventing backflow. [3]

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